Author Name: Leandrou Vasilis
OBJECTIVES
This report aims to:

Confirm that the resistance of a resistor is free of frequency for frequencies in the audio range.

Notice that the resistance of an inductor becomes larger linearly with the rise in frequency.

Prove that the resistance of the capacitor become less nonlinearly with the lessing frequency.
BACKGROUND THEORY
In this experiment will be used a DMM, an Oscilloscope, a function generator, resistors (100Ω, 1ΚΩ), a 10mH inductor and capacitors (0.1μf, 0,47μf)

The DMM read resistance, voltage and current with a digital display.

The oscilloscope is an instrument that will display the variation of a voltage with time on a flat screen monitor.

A function generator typically expands on the skills of the audio oscillator by supplying a square wave and triangular waveform with an increased frequency range.

Capacitor is an element constructed simply of two surfaces separated by the air gap. The capacitor displays its true characteristics only when a change in the voltage or current is made in the network.
EQUIPMENT
· Digital Multimeter (Brand: Good Will Instruments Co. Ltd, Model: GDM8135, Serial Number: CF922334)
· Oscilloscope (Brand: HAMEG, Model: HM 2036, Serial Number: 46/87 Z33418)
· Function generator (Model: TG 550)
· 10mH Inductor
· capacitors (0.1μf, 0,47μf)
· resistors (100Ω, 1ΚΩ)
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD AND PROCEDURE
Part 1
The function generator was connected in series with the DMM and the 1ΚΩ resistor. The oscilloscope was connected on the resistor. The total current was measured and then the resistance of the resistor was calculated by using R=VRrms / Irms (table 1). To find out that the resistance is frequency independent keep the voltage of the resistor constant and changed the frequency while monitoring the current.
Part 2
The function generator was connected in series with the 100Ω resistor and the 10mH inductor. The oscilloscope was connected on the inductor. The voltage across the resistor was measured, the current and XL was calculated using Ipp = VR / R, XL = VL / I, XL = 2πfL (table 3). Replacing the resistor by an inductor, verify that the voltage across the inductor will be kept constant while the frequency of the voltage monitor is varying. The reactance of an inductor increases linearly with increases in frequency.
Part 3
The function generator was connected in series with the 100Ω resistor and the 0.1μF capacitor. The oscilloscope was connected on the capacitor. The voltage across the resistor was measured and the Xc was calculated (table 3).
OBSERVATIONS
Frequency 
VR 
VRrms 
Irms 
R=VRrms / Irms 
50Hz 
4V 
1.414V 
1.36mA 
1.039KΩ 
100Hz 
4V 
1.414V 
1.36mA 
1.039KΩ 
200Hz 
4V 
1.414V 
1.36mA 
1.039KΩ 
500Hz 
4V 
1.414V 
1.36mA 
1.039KΩ 
1000Hz 
4V 
1.414V 
1.36mA 
1.039KΩ 
Table 1 frequency response of the resistor
Frequency 
VL 
VR 
Ipp = VR / R 
XL = VL / I 
XL = 2πfL 
1kHz 
4V 
5.6V 
56.34mA 
71Ω 
62,8Ω 
3kHz 
4V 
2.1V 
21.12mA 
189Ω 
188.4Ω 
5kHz 
4V 
1.25V 
12.57mA 
318Ω 
319Ω 
7kHz 
4V 
1V 
10mA 
400Ω 
439Ω 
10kHz 
4V 
0.8V 
8.04mA 
497Ω 
628Ω 
Table 2 frequency response of inductor
Table 3 frequency response of the capacitor
Frequency 
VC 
VR 
I 
Xc = Vc / I 
Xc = 1 / (2πfC) 
100Ηz 
4V 
30mV 
300μΑ 
13.33ΚΩ 
15.9ΚΩ 
200Hz 
4V 
52mV 
520μΑ 
7.7ΚΩ 
7.9ΚΩ 
300Hz 
4V 
80mV 
800μΑ 
5ΚΩ 
5.3ΚΩ 
400Hz 
4V 
100mV 
1mA 
4ΚΩ 
3.97ΚΩ 
500Hz 
4V 
130mV 
1.3mA 
3.07ΚΩ 
3.18ΚΩ 
800Hz 
4V 
200mV 
2mA 
2ΚΩ 
1.98ΚΩ 
1000Hz 
4V 
270mV 
2.7mA 
1.48ΚΩ 
1.59ΚΩ 
2000Hz 
4V 
520mV 
5.2mA 
769.2Ω 
795.7Ω 